Key events in the
lead up to and the aftermath of the Iraq war
terrorists bomb PanAm flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland,
killing 270 people.
suspends sanctions after Libya extradites
the two Lockerbie suspects to Scottish custody in the Netherlands.
U.S. State Department representatives begin a secret dialogue with Libyan
2001: U.S. begins a series of public negotiations with Libya.
continue; Libya says
it will accept responsibility for Lockerbie.
to the C.I.A., Libya develops
its nuclear infrastructure, including discussions with Russia on cooperation at the Tajura Nuclear Research Center and
a potential power reactor deal; expands its ballistic missile efforts; reestablishes
contacts with chemical weapon experts and suppliers in Western Europe; and seeks dual-use capabilities useful
for biological weapons.
leader Muammar Qaddafi announces that Libya has uranium, but will not develop
a nuclear weapon.
2003: Qaddafi offers to allow international inspections of industrial
sites in search of
biological and chemical weapons.
formal responsibility for Lockerbie and agrees to compensate each victim's
family with up to $10 million.
Security Council votes to lift sanctions; U.S. and France abstain.
Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is quoted as saying Libya is
working with North Korea and Pakistan to
acquire nuclear know-how and technology.
U.S. and Britain intercept
a German-owned freighter carrying thousands of centrifuge parts to Libya.
2003: Libya agrees
to verifiably dismantle its mass destruction weapon programs, freeze its nuclear
activities, and limit the range of existing missiles to 180 miles.
U.S. and Britain announce
that Libya's decision to
disarm is a result of nine months of negotiations, during which U.S. and British
weapon specialists and intelligence experts visited ten secret Libyan weapon
sites. They describe the nuclear
program as "nascent" but are shocked at Libya's success in buying sophisticated
equipment, such as centrifuges, needed to produce nuclear
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) visits four Libyan nuclear sites and assesses that the nuclear
program is still years away from being able to produce a bomb. The IAEA sees
no full-scale uranium enrichment facility (only a
pilot unit) or enriched uranium.
2004: U.S. officials reportedly confirm that Libya's centrifuge design originated in Pakistan and
appears to have been received after September 11, 2001.
Libya signs the
Chemical Weapons Convention.
the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
is agreed that U.S. and
British experts will oversee destruction and removal of nuclear components
in Libya, and IAEA teams
will certify Libya's
compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
U.S., British and U.N. inspectors reportedly reveal
that Libya procured
parts for 100 aluminum-rotor centrifuge machines beginning in the late 1990s,
then adopted a more advanced maraging steel design, for which it ordered 10,000
machines, plus production equipment.
U.S. and Britain remove
55,000 pounds of Libyan nuclear and missile equipment and documentation – including
uranium hexafluoride (UF6), missile guidance devices, and centrifuge components,
plus warhead designs believed to have been bought from the A.Q. Khan nuclear
2004: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW) begins inspections of Libyan chemical weapons.
details history of Libya's
nuclear program in a public report and finds its past activities noncompliant
with its NPT obligations, but commends its recent cooperation.
investigators report that the Khan network shipped partly enriched uranium,
as well as designs and technology for making a
nuclear bomb, to Libya on
Pakistani planes in 2001 and 2002. The
report also says entities from Turkey, Germany, Switzerland, Britain, Dubai and Malaysia were
U.S. eases sanctions against Libya.
Libya tells the IAEA it wants to retain at least
nuclear facilities, including a uranium conversion plant that the U.S. wants dismantled
2004: OPCW receives a compete declaration that discloses a chemical
weapons production facility at Rabta that produced 23 metric tons of mustard
gas, two storage
facilities and 2.9 million pounds of precursor materials that could
be used to produce sarin nerve gas.
completes inventory of Libya's
last 500 tons of material from Libya's nuclear program is shipped to the U.S., including
all centrifuge parts and equipment from the uranium conversion facility, plus
all long-range missiles, including five Scud-C missiles.
Libya signs the
Additional Protocol to its IAEA Safeguards agreement.
Libya sends 16 kilograms of uranium reactor fuel
to 80% U-235 from Tajura back to Russia.
U.S. says the Khan network received $100 million
technology sold to Libya.